Central issues of our time
• Issues that keep us awake at night
• The immigration debate--er, debacle?
• Far right extremism
• Sexual misconduct, unwanted sexual and gender-biased behavior
• What's wrong with American prisons
• Russia's bad behavior
• Chicks in academia: Girls and women in science
• The flap about Larry Summers
Gun violence and violent deaths,
• More than 14,000 immigrant children are in U.S. custody, an all-time high (Tal Kopan, SF Chronicle,11-16-18) 'That number tops records set just two months ago, putting further strain on an already overburdened system....The issue of immigrant children in government custody gained widespread attention in the spring and summer when the Trump administration separated thousands of families at the southern border. Almost all those separated children have since left Health and Human Services care, but the total number of children in the system has steadily grown....“Right now, unaccompanied children are being held in detention facilities or living in tent cities due in part to potential sponsors’ fear of retribution from ICE for coming forward,” Harris said in a statement. “This is an unacceptable obstacle to getting these children into a safe home, and we must fix it.” Trump is using background checks to identify undocumented families taking the children in.
• I Know What Incarceration Does to Families. It Happened to Mine. (Michiko Kakutani, Opinion, NY Times, 7-13-18) The author compares Trump's border policy to "the 120,000 people of Japanese descent on the West Coast who were dispatched to internment camps during World War II....History is repeating itself. This time without even the pretext of war, and with added heartbreaking cruelty. Under Mr. Trump's "zero tolerance" border enforcement policy, nearly 3,000 children were separated from their parents, and while the administration later halted these separations, it neglected to keep proper records and is now struggling to find and reunite families." And yet: "there is no border crisis: In the last fiscal year, arrests of unauthorized immigrants had actually declined to levels not seen since the early 1970s....We have reached the point where more than a third of the country either buys into Mr. Trump's falsehoods or casually shrugs them off, putting loyalty to him or the Republican Party over facts, common sense and the Constitution."
• Where 518 Inmates Sleep in Space for 170, and Gangs Hold It Together (Aurora Almendral, NY Times, 1-7-19) Misery and overcrowding are worse than ever in the Philippines’ pretrial jails, with guards so outnumbered that gangs increasingly keep the peace....“When you are detained in Philippine jails, you are being tortured,” said Leah Armamento, a member of the Philippine government’s Commission on Human Rights....The Philippine judicial system is riddled with inefficiencies, and there is a culture of bribery and structural incentives for judges and lawyers to move slowly, despite a constitutional right to a speedy trial..."
• Trump Administration Is Illegally Forcing Asylum Seekers Out of the United States (Michael Tan and Julie Veroff, ACLU, 2-14-19) The Trump administration claims there’s an immigration crisis at the border. But border apprehensions are near record lows.Last September, Bianca* was forced to flee Honduras because her partner’s father threatened to kill her for being a lesbian. Bianca could not go to the police in Honduras because they do not protect LGBTQ people from harm. So she left home to save her life. Before last month, after entering the country, Bianca would have been interviewed by an asylum officer to determine if she had a potential asylum claim, and once she passed that, her case would have proceeded in immigration court. She would only be deported from the United States if she did not succeed in her asylum application — that is, if she could not show that her fear of persecution was well-founded. However, because of a new Trump administration policy, border officers sent Bianca back to Mexico without even evaluating her request for asylum. The administration’s purported basis for the policy is a provision of the immigration laws that allows certain migrants to wait in Mexico or Canada while their immigration case is heard in immigration court. But that law was never meant to apply to asylum seekers like Bianca. See also A Look at Trump’s Biggest Border Lies (Brian Tashman, Political Researcher and Strategist, ACLU, 1-8-19) Lie 1: Border crossings are at or near an all-time high.Lie 2: Terrorists are entering the country through the southern border, creating a national security crisis. Lie 3: The wall would stop gang members. Lie 4: The wall would stop drugs from pouring in through the border. Lie 5: We need a new wall.
Inside The Trump Administration’s Chaotic Effort To Reunite Migrant Families( Nour Malas and Alicia A. Caldwell, Wall Street Journal, 7-27-18) Officials spent months planning how to separate families coming across the border, but had no good plan when the White House suddenly reversed course. For months, federal immigration officials along the 268-mile stretch of border that separates New Mexico and West Texas from Mexico had been testing a policy of separating migrant parents from their children. What they didn’t plan for was how to reunite them. When a federal judge ordered the Trump administration to reconnect more than 2,600 children separated from their families after a national outcry, the two government agencies in charge—the Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Health and Human Services—didn’t have a firm grip on the number of children involved or exactly where they were. (You can read hundreds of comments.) KHN heading: There Was No Precedent Or Playbook To Follow: A Look at the Chaos Behind the Family Reunification Process.
• Over 10,000 migrant children are now in US government custody at 100 shelters in 14 states (Michelle Mark, Business Insider, 5-30-18) The surge comes in the wake of the Trump administration's new tactic to criminally prosecute every person who crosses into the US illegally, which requires them to be separated from any children they brought with them while they're detained.'
Here's the 20-step vetting process refugees must follow to enter the US (Jacqui Frank, Business Insider, 1-31-17)
• Reporting on immigration? Choose your sources responsibly (Chloe Reichel, Journalist's Resource, 9-20-18) "If you’re looking to balance the viewpoints in your immigration stories, seek quotes from both conservative and liberal organizations – but avoid citing organizations that have been classified as hate groups by the SPLC, Ramos said. For example, he recommended the Cato Institute, the LIBRE Initiative and the Heritage Foundation as organizations with conservative viewpoints that don’t promulgate hate." Three organizations that have been criticized heavily by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC): the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), the Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) (both as "hate groups") and NumbersUSA (all three support "self-deportation," making "the lives of immigrants so awful that they leave the country”).
• Judge allows case over alleged forced labor in immigration detention to move forward (Kate Morrissey, San Diego Union Tribune, 5-17-18) "Two former immigration detainees will be allowed to bring a class action lawsuit against CoreCivic, the private prison company that owns and operates Otay Mesa Detention Center, for alleged labor violations, a federal judge ruled Monday. The complaint alleges that CoreCivic violated federal forced labor laws by making detainees clean and maintain the facilities for no pay and threatening them with punishments like solitary confinement if they didn’t comply. Otay Mesa Detention Center holds detainees in the custody of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the agency responsible for those with pending cases in immigration court, which is a civil court system, not a criminal one."
• Zero Tolerance: Trump’s Immigration Policy at the Border (ProPublica series)
The Trump administration’s “zero tolerance” policy called for the prosecution of all people who attempt to enter the country illegally, and has resulted in the separation of more than 2,300 migrant children from their parents since April. ProPublica is covering the ongoing developments.
---The Immigrant Children’s Shelters Near You (Decca Muldowney, Alex Mierjeski, Claire Perlman, Lilia Chang, Ken Schwencke, Adriana Gallardo and Derek Kravitz, ProPublica, 6-28-18)
---For a 6-Year-Old Snared in the Immigration Maze, a Memorized Phone Number Proves a Lifeline (Ginger Thompson, ProPublica, 6-21-18) As the U.S. attempts to reunite migrant families, children will bear the burden of helping to identify who and where their parents are. The 6-year-old girl heard asking to call her aunt on an audio recording from a detention facility this week has an advantage.
---I've Been Reporting on MS-13 for a Year. Here Are the 5 Things Trump Gets Most Wrong. (Hannah Dreier, ProPublica, 6-25-18) The gang is not invading the country. They’re not posing as fake families. They’re not growing. To stop them, the government needs to understand them.
---Listen to Children Who’ve Just Been Separated From Their Parents at the Border (Ginger Thompson, ProPublica, 6-18-18) Audio from inside a U.S. Customs and Border Protection facility, in which children can be heard wailing as an agent jokes, “We have an orchestra here.”
---Here’s What It’s Like to Work at a Shelter for Immigrant Kids (Kavitha Surana and Robert Faturechi, ProPublica, 6-27-18) Some facilities are so overstretched, employees often wait hours for a break to go to the bathroom.
---About the Immigrant Children Shelter Map (Decca Muldowney and Adriana Gallardo, ProPublica, 6-27-18) Here’s how and why ProPublica mapped the immigrant children shelters, and how you can help them investigate.
---Do You Know Something About a Detention Center or Shelter Where the Government is Holding Children? (Adriana Gallardo, ProPublica, 6-27-18) Help ProPublica learn more about these facilities and assure the government agencies overseeing this process are accountable.
---Behind the Criminal Immigration Law: Eugenics and White Supremacy (Ian MacDougall, ProPublica, 6-19-18) The history of the statute that can make it a felony to illegally enter the country involves some dark corners of U.S. history.
---Video: The Voices Missing From the Immigration Debate (Vox and ProPublica, 6-19-18) A Vox-ProPublica collaboration delves into the Trump administration’s separation of parents and children at the border.
• Study finds refugees actually pay the US government thousands more than they get from it (Veronika Bondarenko, Business Insider, 6-13-17) "Despite widespread accusations of being a burden on the hardworking public's tax dollar, most refugees actually end up paying thousands more in taxes than they receive in government handouts from the US. A new study from the National Bureau of Economic Research found that refugees who entered the US as adults from 2010-14 paid, on average, $21,000 more in taxes than they got in any kind of welfare payments."
• This was the only refugee camp in America for Jews fleeing the Nazis (Nina Renata Aron, Timeline News, 6-22-18) Roosevelt’s effort to help came at the end of the war, but still spared nearly a thousand lives.
• Fact check: Did the Obama administration separate families? (Lori Robertson, Factcheck.org, 6-23-18) In defending its “zero tolerance” border policy that has caused the separation of families, the Trump administration has argued that the Obama and Bush administrations did this too. That’s misleading. Experts say there were some separations under previous administrations, but no blanket policy to prosecute parents and, therefore, separate them from their children. “Bush and Obama did not have policies that resulted in the mass separation of parents and children like we’re seeing under the current administration,” Sarah Pierce, a policy analyst with the Migration Policy Institute, told us....DHS told us that 2,342 children were separated from their parents between May 5 and June 9.
• How the Democrats Lost Their Way on Immigration (Peter Beinart, The Atlantic) In the past decade, liberals have avoided inconvenient truths about the issue.
• Separated migrant children face infectious disease and other health threats Bara Vaida, Covering Health, AHCJ, 6-21-18) 'Dr. Marc Siegel wrote in USA Today that “thousands of children now being housed in makeshift detention centers have been reported to suffer from large outbreaks of scabies, a highly contagious, itchy rash spread by tiny insects known as mites.” There also have been reports of outbreaks of lice, measles, flu, drug-resistant tuberculosis, dengue fever and Zika, Siegel added.'
• Reporters Were Let Inside a Detention Facility for Migrant Kids. Here’s What It Was Like. (Nomaan Merchant, AP, Boston Globe, 6-18-18) Check the photo on Twitter of children in cages.
• Staff describe Georgia immigrant detention center as ‘ticking bomb’ (Elly Yu,Reveal News, 6-5-18) One of the country's largest immigration detention centers had no psychiatrist on staff, "chronic shortages" of almost all medical positions and was described by its own staff as a "ticking bomb" because noncriminal detainees were mixed with high-security offenders. See Federal Records Reveal obtained from The Center for Investigative Reporting and Atlanta NPR station WABE show the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Office of Inspector General found widespread problems at Stewart Detention Center in southwest Georgia, including drug smuggling and staffing shortages that employees said endangered detention officers and detainees.
• Immigrant Kids to Get Monitor After Forced-Medication Claims (Patricia Hurtado, Bloomberg, 7-27-18) A judge ordered independent oversight of U.S. immigration authorities' handling of detained children amid allegations that some were being forcibly medicated at a Texas facility. The Justice Department's Office of Immigration Litigation said in a May 25 court filing that the procedures for placing unaccompanied alien children in secured facilities are governed by a 2008 federal law, the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act, rather than by a 1997 settlement that set standards for the treatment of immigrant children detained by the government.
• Separating families at the border isn’t just bad policy — it’s horrible for children’s health (Oscar J. Benavidez, STAT, 6-19-18) "What is even more disturbing to me is that these family separations are occurring in full public view, as if they are done with honor or pride instead of with shame."
• Government lowers number of migrant parents it says waived reunification with children (Amy Goldstein, WashPost, 8-3-18) The number of migrant parents who have signed away the right to be reunited with their children is significantly lower than the Trump administration has said before, according to fresh information the government filed in a family-separation court case. The latest figures show that 34 parents waived the chance to be back together with their children — compared with the 120 that the government reported a week earlier. Migrants' advocates and congressional Democrats have challenged the idea that large numbers of parents were signing away those rights, contending that some — traumatized by the separations — were misled, did not understand the form or never signed in the first place.
• Texas Health Officials: Immigrant Surge Presents a Medical Crisis (Alexa Ura, Texas Tribune, 6-24-14) As the state's top elected officials debate how to halt a surge of immigrants across the border, health officials and volunteer doctors are voicing concerns over what they say is the more serious challenge: a looming medical crisis. "Since October, authorities in the Border Patrol's Rio Grande Valley sector have detained an unprecedented 160,000 undocumented immigrants, including more than 33,500 unaccompanied minors."
• Asylum-Seekers Say Immigration Officials Are Ransoming Their Kids in Exchange for Deportation (David Boddiger, Splinter, 6-24-18) The U.S. government is continuing to use defenseless children as bargaining chips in its all-out assault on undocumented migrants mostly from Central America who are seeking safety and a better life in this country. A new Texas Tribune report says that immigration authorities at a detention facility outside Houston are telling the Central American men held there and separated from their children that they can get their kids back if they immediately sign a voluntary deportation order. Their statements appear to violate Article 14 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states that, “Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.”
• Zeroing In On Immigration, Asylum Laws and the Border (On Point,, WBUR, National Public Radio 6-19-18)
• Obtaining Asylum in the United States (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services)
• What's the difference between legal immigration, asylum, refugees and DACA? (Obed Manuel and Brianna Stone, Curious Texas, Dallas News, 6-23-18)
• The U.S. Immigration Debate ( Backgrounder by Claire Felter and Danielle Renwick, Council on Foreign Relations, 3-13-18) Comprehensive immigration reform has eluded Congress for years, moving controversial policy decisions into the executive and judicial branches of government. What is the immigration population? How do Americans feel about immigration? What legislation has Congress considered? What actions have presidents considered? How are state and local authorities handling these issues? What are the prospects for immigration reform?
• The Trump administration’s separation of families at the border, explained ( Dara Lind, Vox, 6-11-18) Why children are being sent to “foster care or whatever” while their parents are sent to jail.
• Christian Non-Profit Faces Scrutiny Over Government Foster Care Contract for Separated Children (Dan MacGuill, Snopes.com, 7-11-18) Bethany Christian Services, which has links to the family of Education Secretary Betsy DeVos, has fostered out at least 81 children taken from their parents at the U.S. border, as part of the Trump administration’s “zero tolerance” immigration policy.
‘Why Did You Leave Me?’ The Migrant Children Left Behind as Parents Are Deported (Miriam Jordan, NY Times, 7-27-18) Adayanci Perez Chavez, who was separated from her father when they crossed the border from Guatemala more than two months ago, has watched as one playmate after another has checked out of the migrant children’s center in Michigan where they have spent their days studying, playing and meeting with their case managers. One by one over the past few weeks, 90 percent of the children at the center, managed by Bethany Christian Services in Kalamazoo, have been put on planes and reunited with parents who had been held at immigration detention centers across the country.
(Patricia Hurtado, Politics, Bloomberg, 7-27-18) A judge ordered independent oversight of U.S. immigration authorities’ handling of detained children amid allegations that some were being forcibly medicated at a Texas facility. U.S. District Judge Dolly Gee said at a hearing in Los Angeles Friday that “persistent” problems require oversight and she’ll appoint someone in the next two weeks.
• How America's Idea Of Illegal Immigration Doesn't Always Match Reality (Hansi Lo Wang, Alyson Hurt, and Camila Domonoske, The Two-Way, NPR, 3-8-17) Border crossers, farm laborers, new arrivals from Mexico: There's no shortage of stereotypes about people living in the U.S. illegally. But the statistics tell a different story. Getting the numbers right.
• My Immigrant Patients (Joanna Sharpless, Pulse, 7-27-18)
• Toddler died after contracting infection at ICE family detention facility (Emma Platoff, Texas Tribune, 8-27-18) The toddler from Guatemala died six weeks after leaving an ICE family detention center in Dilley. She had not yet turned two years old. Vice reports: "Two doctors contracted by the Department of Homeland Security released a review of care in facilities including Dilley over the last four years. The doctors found a host of problems and called the practice of family detention “an exploitation and an assault on the dignity and health of children and families....“It didn't sound like she was in the best of health, but not something you anticipate dying from"
• This Italian Town Once Welcomed Migrants. Now, It’s a Symbol for Right-Wing Politics (Jason Horowitz, NY Times, 7-7-18) Macerata once had a reputation for tolerance. But the killing of a woman and a revenge shooting made the Italian town a symbol of rising right-wing politics.
• Seeing Immigrants: "She said to me, 'This is your day. You pass.' And I started to cry." (Encounters, Pulse, 7-27-18)
• A New Memoir Addresses America's Cruelest Immigration Policies From Inside the Border Patrol (Varun Nayar, Pacific Standard, 3-8-18) Francisco Cantú's memoir of his time as a Border Patrol agent asks some important questions about violence, complicity, and the blurred lines between people and the institutions they serve.
• An Educator’s Guide to the Immigration Debate (Maureen Costello, Teaching Tolerance, Summer 2014) What you need to know to facilitate classroom conversation about this controversial topic. Conversation starters: DREAMers. Republicans and Democrats agree it is time to provide Dreamers a path to legal residency—the question is how? What should DREAMers have to do to secure legal status? Amnesty or Deportation About 11 million unauthorized immigrants live and work in the United States today. Some say they should be deported, while others support a path to legal residency. What would deportation of 11 million people involve? What would be required to receive amnesty?
Path to Citizenship For 250 years, the United States has recharged its spirit and economy by extending citizenship to immigrants. The question now is, once the undocumented gain legal status, will we extend the same opportunity to them? If not, how do we reconcile that decision with our ideal of equality?
Visa Eligibility The current system’s quotas and preferences mean there is no way some people can ever enter the country. Guest-worker visas mean some will labor here with no representation, few legal protections and no chance to earn citizenship. How do we make rules that are fair, generous and in keeping with our values?
Enforcement From border security to deportation and fines, we must decide how to enforce the law with employers and employees who are undocumented. What’s realistic, and what reflects our goals and values?
• Three Key Immigration Issues Remain (Lanhee Chen, Real Clear Politics, 6-13-13) Three clear issues will determine if an immigration bill can get through Congress: Pathway to Citizenship, Healthcare: Who pays for it? Border Security: What to do with illegal border crossers, what exit system to have, how could illegal immigrants qualify for legal permanent residency?
• 17 Famous Immigrants Who Helped Shape America (Nicki Fleischner and Erica Sanchez, Global Citizen, 5-23-17)
• The Wall: A 2,000-mile journey in the shadow of the border wall (Dennis Wagner, USA Today, 9-20-17) A USA TODAY NETWORK special report examines the impact of Trump's proposed U.S.-Mexico border wall, exploring every foot of the 2000-mile boundary.
• Another Cause Of Doctor Burnout: Being Forced To Give Immigrants Unequal Care (Jake Harper, WFYI, KHN, 5-31-18) There are an estimated 6,500 undocumented immigrants in the U.S. with end-stage kidney disease. Many of them can’t afford private insurance and are barred from Medicare or Medicaid. Treatment of these patients varies widely from state to state, and in many places the only way they can get dialysis is in the emergency room. Avoidable emergencies strain hospital resources. Kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease, is treatable with routine dialysis every two to three days. Without regular dialysis, which removes toxins from the blood, the condition is life-threatening. Providing undocumented patients with suboptimal care because of their immigration status contributes to professional burnout and moral distress.
• Writing About Immigration: From the AP Stylebook (Andy Hollandbeck, Copyediting, 6-6-18) DREAM Act vs. DACA. The DREAM Act (Development, Relief, and Education for Alien Minors) is a legislative bill that has yet to pass through either the House or Senate. DACA — Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals — does have the force of law, but it never went through Congress. It’s an administrative program (but not an executive order) enacted during the Obama administration. Choose your words carefully: Immigrants, Migrants, Asylum-Seekers, and Refugees. And so on.
Jeff Sessions says the Bible justifies separating immigrant families. The verses he cited are infamous. (Kyle Swenson, Wash Post, 6-15-18) When Southern preachers blasted Northern abolitionists for defying the Fugitive Slave Act in the decade leading to the Civil War, they cited the same lines.
Traveling While Muslim: The Case of the Exploding Chocolate by Qasim Rashid (Politico Magazine, 8-11-18) I got harassed at the airport by Customs and Border Patrol. Good thing I'm a lawyer—in the Trump era, others aren't so lucky.
• My Immigration Story The story of U.S. immigrants in their own words.
• 6 Immigrant Stories That Will Make You Believe In The American Dream Again (Monte Burke, Forbes, 10-25-16)
• America's Story: An Immigrant Story (Geri Mannion, Carnegie Corporation) Nearly one of every four Americans—70 million people—is an immigrant or the child of parents who came from another country. Some fled war, persecution, or environmental disaster; others pursued the American ideal of opportunity for all. "Will the United States become a nation that integrates these newcomers in all aspects of civic life, or a nation divided?" Changing perceptions. Combatting a backlash. Settling in. Overcoming barriers. "If we had a legal visa category that let people go back and forth, many wouldn't feel the need to put down roots and instead would work for a time and go back." Deportation costs. Reform benefits. Texas dreamers. Encouraging citizenship.
• "You have to live in fear": One undocumented immigrant's story (Bigad Shaban, CBS News, 11-22-14)
• NPR stories about illegal immigration. The story of how that population grew so large is a long one that's mostly about Mexico, and full of unintended consequences -- plus many other stories.
• Troubled Water: An Investigation of Drinking Water in America News 21 investigates drinking water in America. Watch the documentary. And read online:
Chapter 1. Is Your Water Safe?. (Agnel Philip, Elizabeth Sims, Jordan Houston and Rachel Konieczny, News21, 8-14-17) Millions consumed potentially unsafe water in the last 10 years
Chapter 2. Industrial Polluters. (Jasmine Spearing-Bowen and Karl Schneider, News21, 8-14-17)
Chapter 3. Farming Waste ( Jackie Wang, Nicole Tyau and Chelsea Rae Ybanez, News21, 8-14-17) (Jasmine Spearing-Bowen and Karl Schneider, News21, 8-14-17) Farming activity contaminates water despite best practices
Chapter 4. Environmental Justice.. (William Taylor Potter, Brandon Kitchin and Alexis Reese, News21, 8-14-17) Crumbling pipes, tainted water plague black communities
Chapter 5. Tribal Lands. (Lauren Kaljur and Macee Beheler, News21, 8-14-17) Native American tribes fight for clean water and more money
Chapter 6. Borderlands. (Maria Esquinca and Andrea Jaramillo, News21, 8-14-17) Colonias on the border struggle with decades-old water issues
Chapter 7. Backyard Water (Bryn Caswell and Fionnuala O’Leary, News21, 8-14-17) Lax oversight puts millions of private well users at risk
Chapter 8. Lead in Schools. (Elissa Nuñez and Amy Molloy, News21, 8-14-17) Schools fail lead tests while many states don’t require testing at all
Chapter 9. Health Effects. (Amy Molloy, News21, 8-14-17) Fear of the unknown: The effect of water contamination on health
Chapter 10.The Pentagon Problem. (Corinne Roels, Briana Smith and Adrienne St. Clair, News21, 8-14-17) Military bases' contamination will affect water for generations.
Chapter 11. Cost of Contamination. (Bryan Anderson, News21, 8-14-17) Taxpayers pay billions for industrial contamination cleanup.
• Lead in drinking water: Key facts and reporting tips (Chloe Reichel, Journalist's Resource, 9-10-18)
• The Water Wars of Arizona (Noah Gallagher Shannon, NY Times Magazine, 7-19-18) Attracted by lax regulations, industrial agriculture has descended on a remote valley, depleting its aquifer — leaving many residents with no water at all.
• EPA Report Faults Response to Flint Water Crisis (Joe Barrett and Kris Maher, WSJ, 7-19-18) A spokeswoman for the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality said the water crisis “highlighted the fragile nature of the aging infrastructure throughout the country, as well as a number of ways the federal lead and copper rule needs improvement and/or clarification.” She said that Michigan has “taken a lead role” in updating its lead and copper rule. Weak oversight at local, state and federal levels delayed action to protect the Michigan city’s residents from lead contamination. See also After Flint, Watchdog Urges E.P.A. to Monitor Drinking Water More Closely (Mitch Smith and Lisa Friedman, NY Times, 7-19-18) The Environmental Protection Agency’s failure to intervene earlier and stop the water crisis in Flint, Mich., exposed a need for wholesale changes to how federal officials monitor drinking water systems, a government watchdog said Thursday. A report from the E.P.A.’s Office of Inspector General said management weaknesses hobbled the agency’s response to the lead and other contaminants that poisoned Flint’s drinking water for more than a year and that federal officials should have taken stronger action to correct repeated blunders by state regulators.
• China may be most at risk for deadly, extreme heat waves (Andrew Freedman, Axios, 8-2-18) Heat waves in the North China Plain — China's breadbasket — are predicted to become so severe, they would "limit habitability in the most populous region of the most populous country on Earth," a new study finds.
• The Crisis on the Colorado River (John McChesney, Director of the Rural West Initiative, Stanford) "With Lake Mead at 39 percent capacity and Lake Powell at around 59 percent after an 11-year drought, there’s no question that there is a crisis on the Colorado River, and, experts predict, climate change will make things worse. With 30 million people dependent on the river, the outcome of disputes on distribution of Colorado River water is critical for the West. Researchers from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography say Lake Powell has a 50 percent chance of becoming unusable by 2021. Some experts say that within the next 15 years, the Central Arizona Project, which supplies Phoenix and Tucson and the agricultural lands between them, may become the testing ground to see what happens when the water runs low. Is the 1922 Compact still the best law of the river?"
• Iowa must clean up its mess in the Gulf. Current funding, voluntary efforts aren't enough. (Editorial, Des Moines Register, 6-28-18) "If it weren’t for Iowa, the Gulf of Mexico would have less fish-killing fertilizer flowing into it from the Mississippi and Missouri rivers....Iowa now contributes about 40 percent of the excess nutrients that feed the dead zone, an oxygen-starved area in the Gulf where no marine life can survive. The barren area is forecast to exceed the size of Connecticut this year. We’ve long known that Iowa was a major part of the problem; now we are the problem...other states were also subject to extreme weather but managed to reduce their nitrate levels flowing into the Gulf. The study in particular cites Indiana, where farmers are ahead of Iowa in embracing the use of cover crops, which help hold nitrates in the soil....Iowa has had spent decades ignoring the fact that we’re poisoning the ocean. It’s past time to own the blame and take responsibility for cleaning up our mess."
Far Right Extremism
• How the Nazi Party Came to Power in a Democratic Country (Sara C, Medium, 7-19-18)
• What America Taught the Nazis (Ira KatzNelson, The Atlantic, Nov. 2017) In the 1930s, the Germans were fascinated by the global leader in codified racism—the United States. See Hitler's American Model: The United States and the Making of Nazi Race Law by James Q. Whitman. And see remarkable photos in American Nazis in the 1930s—The German American Bund (Alan Taylor, The Atlantic, 6-5-17)
• The Birth of Race-Based Slavery (Peter H. Wood, Slate, 5-19-15) By the 17th century, America’s slave economy had eliminated the obstacle of morality.
• How Christian Slaveholders Used the Bible to Justify Slavery (Noel Rae, Time, 2-23-18) From • The Great Stain: Witnessing American Slavery
• The ‘Einstein of Sex’ and the Nazi burning of books (Alex Cochrane, 12-10-13)
• British Neo-Nazis Are on the Rise — and They’re Becoming More Organized and Violent (Ryan Gallagher, The Intercept, 5-3-18) “There is a sense that a culture war is happening,” says Pantucci. “We are seeing greater polarization in our public debate … We are seeing xenophobic views become mainstream. And that means the unacceptable edge, the violent edge, is getting pulled toward the center as well.”
• After Charlottesville, The American Far Right Is Tearing Itself Apart (Leighton Akio Woodhouse, The Intercept, 9-21-17)
• Family separation shows what Trump has in common with Europe’s far right (Zack Beauchamp, Vox, 6-20-18) Family separation reveals the cruelty at the heart of Trump’s worldview — and those of similar right-wing populists across the West.
• Trump’s Peculiar Sympathy for White South Africans (Peter Beinart, The Atlantic, Aug 2018) Despite the many graver human-rights problems plaguing Africa, Trump has somehow seized upon one affecting white people. See also Trump Believes Fox News—And South Africa Pays the Price (Matt Peterson, The Atlantic,8-23-18) In a late-night tweet, the president shows disdain for a long tradition in American foreign policy.
"Sexual misconduct is an umbrella term for any misconduct of a sexual nature that is of lesser offense than felony sexual assault (such as rape and molestation), particularly where the situation is normally non-sexual and therefore unusual for sexual behavior, or where there is some aspect of personal power or authority that makes sexual behavior inappropriate."--Wikipedia
• We Need A Better Way To Talk About ‘Sexual Misconduct’ (Kathryn Casteel and Andrea Jones-Rooy, FiveThirtyEight, 4-17-18) Vague umbrella terms make an already difficult conversation even harder. Louise Fitzgerald and her team "created a framework for sexual harassment that distributes 16 behaviors — such as, “told sexual stories or jokes” and “made unwanted attempts to stroke, fondle or kiss” — across three categories": Gender hostility (sexist hostility, derogatory comments or actions that invoke sex or gender); unwanted sexual attention; and sexual coercion.
• Pope Francis Addresses Abuse Of Nuns By Priests (All Things Considered, 2-6-19) NPR's Ari Shapiro speaks with Sister Carol Zinn, executive director of the Leadership Conference of Women Religious, about the abuse of nuns and how the Catholic Church has dealt with the issue. See also Pope Francis Acknowledges, For First Time, Sexual Abuse Of Nuns By Priests (Richard Gonzales, NPR, 2-5-19) "Pope Francis, for the first time, acknowledged the sexual abuse of nuns by priests and bishops, including a case in which some clergy used women as sex slaves....'I think it is still going on because something does not stop just because you have become aware of it,' he added....After years of revelations of sexual predation by priests upon children and the growing public attention paid to the #MeToo movement, Francis and the church are being forced to address persistent reports of abuse of members of its own hierarchy: the nuns who serve the church in a secondary capacity to men." The pope said he is committed to ending the problem in the Roman Catholic Church.
• Before #MeToo, There Was Catharine A. MacKinnon and Her Book ‘Sexual Harassment of Working Women’ (Ginia Bellafante, NY Times, 3-19-18)
• Sexpat Journalists Are Ruining Asia Coverage (Joanna Chiu, Foreign Policy, 5-18-18) Newsroom predators in foreign bureaus hurt their colleagues — and their stories. Often the worst damage is done by men ensconced in positions of influence in journalism, diplomacy, and international business.
• The Five-Forty-Eight (John Cheever's short story, The New Yorker) This is the story Bellafante's piece starts with. She writes: "Intended as a chilling admonition against female volatility, read 64 years later, amid the current reckoning, it presents itself least ambiguously as a chilling admonition against male entitlement."
• Catharine A. MacKinnon's book: Sexual Harassment of Working Women: A Case of Sex Discrimination
• Student journalist investigates lack of sexual misconduct records for teachers (Karen K. Ho, Columbia Journalism Review, 6-29-18)
• Photojournalism’s moment of reckoning (Kristen Chick, Columbia Journalism Review, 7-16-18) "Women of color are particularly vulnerable targets for harassment, both because they are less likely to be included in the so-called whisper networks used by women in the industry to warn each other about harassers, and because, as an already marginalized population, they have more to lose by speaking out. " "The complicity of men who witness harassment or abuse and simply look away or laugh is one of the most disheartening facets of the issue for Taylor-Lind."
• 2018 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Public Service: The New York Times, for reporting led by Jodi Kantor and Megan Twohey, and The New Yorker, for reporting by Ronan Farrow There is a list of the stories reported on the two sites; you can click on links and read some of the stories.
From Aggressive Overtures to Sexual Assault: Harvey Weinstein’s Accusers Tell Their Stories (Ronan Farrow, New Yorker, 10-23-17) Multiple women share harrowing accounts of sexual assault and harassment by the film executive. This story won a Pulitzer Prize. Watch the video of Farrow, available online. Rose McGowan's public accusation of rape seems to have started the ball rolling.
• Harvey Weinstein Paid Off Sexual Harassment Accusers for Decades (Jodi Kantor and Megan Twohey, NY Times, 10-5-17) Winner of Investigative Reporters and Editors' highest honor for investigative reporting: the IRE medal. The judges' comments: "The New York Times’ reporting exposed a massive story hiding in plain sight and drove a worldwide movement to fight harassment, discrimination and abuse against women. This isn't just a tale of the famous, rich and powerful -- it is about women in all walks of life. You can draw a direct line from the journalism to a cultural moment still sparking scrutiny and action on issues that women have been forced to quietly tolerate and deal with in their professional and personal lives."
• The Power Of #MeToo: Why Hashtag Sparks ‘Groundswell’ Of Sharing — And Healing (Alicia Doktor, Aces Connection and KHN, 11-16-17)
• 'Where there is more rape culture in the press, there is more rape' (Denise-Marie Ordway, Journalist's Resource, 9-7-18) Rape occurs more often in communities where the news media reflects "rape culture" — in which the coverage can be interpreted as showing empathy for the accused and blame for victims, according to a new study published in the Quarterly Journal of Political Science.
• Silence breakers speak out against news industry’s hypocrisy ( Yardena Schwartz, Columbia Journalism Review, 4-5-18) Women who speak out about sexual harassment are often blacklisted by other news organizations
• New report highlights the online harassment faced by women in journalism, and the lack of training on how to cope (Catalina Albeanu, journalism.co.uk, 4-11-18) Many women interviewed by the Center for Media Engagement also reported they have changed the way they approach stories in order to minimise the risk of harassment.
• UC Berkeley professor fired nearly two years after sexual harassment claims substantiated (Sam Levin, The Guardian, 5-24-17) Dismissal of Blake Wentworth – who sued the women who filed the harassment complaints – marks a rare instance of termination for sexual misconduct
Sexual harassment: records show how University of California faculty target students(Sam Levin, The Guardian, 3-8-17) Documents reveal patterns in how officials appear to target vulnerable students they oversee – in some cases dramatically impeding their studies and careers
• Backpage’s Sex Ads Are Gone. Child Trafficking? Hardly. (Timothy Williams, NY Times, 3-11-17)
• History of Abuse Seen in Many Girls in Juvenile System (Timothy Williams, NY Times, 7-9-15)
• California Today: A ‘See Something, Say Something’ Prostitution Plan(Mike McPhate, NY Times, 9-16-16) "On Saturday, Oakland is taking an unconventional step in fighting its image as one of America’s most crime-ridden cities, introducing a website, reportjohn.org, that city authorities hope will deter customers of the sex trade. Residents will be encouraged to note down the license plate numbers of suspected johns’ vehicles and describe the specific activity they witnessed. The sightings are uploaded to the police, who will send a letter to the address where the vehicle is registered."
Accusations Of 'Frat House' Behavior Trail 'LA Times' Publisher's Career (David Folkenflik, All Things Considered, NPR, 1-18-18)
• Women In Medicine Shout #MeToo About Sexual Harassment At Work (Christina Jewett, Kaiser Health News, 3-20-18)
• Media Outlets Examine Sexual Harassment Allegations At WHO, UNAIDS (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2-7-18)
• Sexual Abuse or Assault (Rape) (Kaiser Permanente distinguishes between sexual abuse or assault (rape), nonviolent sexual abuse, and violent sexual assault.
• The NIH should follow the National Science Foundation’s lead on stopping gender violence in science (Kelsey Priest and Caroline King, STAT, 9-28-18) "As part of the National Science Foundation’s effort to prevent gender violence in science, its director, France A. Córdova, recently announced new terms and conditions for reporting gender violence to the organization. It is the kind of clear and bold approach that the National Institutes of Health should be taking. Instead, the NIH is sticking with its weak 'guidance' on anti-sexual harassment, shirking its responsibility and placing the burden for action on survivors, though it did launch a new website on the topic."
It’s not just the powerful (The Economist, 10-13-16) The politics of sexual assault: Privilege lets predatory men get away with a lot, be they rich and famous or not. The Republican Party gives Mr. Trump a pass on lewd and predatory behavior.
• Woman with Northwest Arctic roots breaks silence on sexual abuse in memoir ( Shady Grove Oliver, The Arctic Sounder, reprinted in Anchorage Daily News, 1-4-18) Story about Tia Wakole, author of the self-published memoir "Starting A Fire: Bringing Light to the Dark."
Years after silently combating sexual trauma, female veterans seek help (Anna Casey, Kaiser Health News and PBS NewsHour, 10-1-17)
• Poll: 74 percent say sexual harassment must be addressed seriously (Wisconsin Gazette, 12-15-17) Over 84 percent of voters said that members of Congress should be barred from using public funds to settle sexual harassment and other workplace disputes, and over 89 percent said that the names of members of Congress involved in these settlements – past and future – should be made public.
• The Dickensian Conditions of Life in a For-Profit Lockup (Nate Blakeslee, NY Times Book Review, 10-1-18) A review of American Prison: A Reporter's Undercover Journey into the Business of Punishment by Shane Bauer. Bauer's "survey of profit-driven incarceration begins in the mid-19th century and strikes a familiar theme, that mass incarceration in the South was simply slavery by another name. But Bauer adds new details, especially about the history of convict leasing, in which entire prisons — filled mostly with African-American inmates — were rented out to individuals or companies to provide a captive work force....Death rates were staggeringly high; convicts, unlike slaves, cost nothing to replace. As much as anything, this is the story of the South trying to compete with Northern industry without disturbing the region’s existing power structure, which is to say, without labor unions. Inmates were the original scabs."
• Escapes, Riots and Beatings. But States Can’t Seem to Ditch Private Prisons. (Timothy Williams and Richard A. Oppel Jr, NY Times, 4-10-18) "The staying power of the two companies [Management & Training Corporation and the GEO Group] shows how private prisons maintain their hold on the nation’s criminal justice system despite large-scale failures. The field is dominated by a handful of companies who have swallowed the competition and entrenched their positions through aggressive lawyering, intricate financial arrangements and in some cases, according to lawsuits by the Mississippi attorney general, bribery and kickbacks....Private prison companies can be found at every level of government, housing 9 percent of the nation’s prisoners. They emerged in the 1980s, when the number of inmates was quickly outstripping capacity, and they have an outsize influence in certain states, including Arizona, Florida, Hawaii, Mississippi and New Mexico."
• Inside a Private Prison: Blood, Suicide and Poorly Paid Guards (Timothy Williams, NY Times, 4-3-18) " Frank Shaw, the warden of the East Mississippi Correctional Facility, could not guarantee that the prison was capable of performing its most basic function....According to evidence and testimony at a federal civil rights trial, far worse things were happening at the prison than inmates strolling around during a lockdown: A mentally ill man on suicide watch hanged himself, gang members were allowed to beat other prisoners, and those whose cries for medical attention were ignored resorted to setting fires in their cells."
• More New York Times stories on prisons and prisoners
• Prison Reform: Reducing Recidivism by Strengthening the Federal Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Dept of Justice Archives)
• Taro Yamasaki and life inside Jackson State Prison (Michael Cunningham, NiemanStoryboard, 8-30-16). The photojournalist talks about how he got unprecedented access — and images — inside the world's largest walled prison. Includes his Pulitzer-winning story "Inside Jackson" (Nov. 1980, Detroit Free Press)
• The Truth about Mass Incarceration (Stephanos Bibas, National Review, 9-16-15) "America has the highest incarceration rate in the world, outstripping even Russia, Cuba, Rwanda, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Though America is home to only about one-twentieth of the world’s population, we house almost a quarter of the world’s prisoners. Since the mid 1970s, American prison populations have boomed, multiplying sevenfold while the population has increased by only 50 percent. Why?"
• Let Prisoners Learn While They Serve (Editorial, NY Times, 8-16-17)
• In Jail, a $45,000 Bribe Buys a Cellphone, Alcohol and Vitamin C, Prosecutors Say (Benjamin Weiser, NY Times, 4-5-18)
• Prison Reform Talking Points (Rebecca Tuhus-Dubrow, The Nation, 12-19-03) 1. The conditions of prisons are inhumane. 2. Prisons are “crime factories.” 3. Recidivism rates are exceedingly high. 4. Prisons are expensive. And so on.
• Why promote prison reform? (United Nati0ns Office on Drugs and Crime)
• Underfunded, Overcrowded State Prisons Struggle With Reform (Gaby Galvin, US News, 7-26-17) It took a correctional officer's death for Delaware's legislature to address its prison problem. "The state prison population spiked between the 1970s and 1990s as the federal government chased the "war on drugs."
• Life After Prison (Gerard Robinson and Elizabeth English, US News, 6-20-16) Innovative prison education programs are a national necessity. Our nation's recidivism problem starts well before prisoners leave prison. Many of the 2.2 million behind bars today lack a high school degree, and while they are in state custody, most receive little or no preparation for life after prison. Two programs – the Prison Entrepreneurship Program in Texas and the Prison University Project at California's San Quentin Prison – offer a window into what is possible.
• On the Yard by Malcolm Braly (about life in San Quentin and after). "Surely the great American prison novel" — Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. (Disclosure: Malcolm was a friend and colleague.)
• Newjack: Guarding Sing Sing by Ted Conover, a first-hand account of life inside the penal system.
• Worse than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice by David M. Oshinsky. Drawing on police and prison records and oral histories, David M. Oshinsky presents an account of Mississippi's notorious Parchman Farm, and more broadly about the brutal conditions and inhuman treatment of African-Americans in Southern prisons.
• $1 an Hour to Fight Largest Fire in CA History: Are Prison Firefighting Programs Slave Labor? (Democracy Now, 8-9-18)
• Everything You Need to Know About the Prison Strike, One of the Largest in U.S. History (Amanda Arnold, The Cut, 8-29-18)
• Incarcerated Workers Organizing Committee Prison Strike 2018: Rebels incarcerated in prisons across the nation declare a nationwide strike in response to the riot in Lee Correctional Institution, a maximum security prison in South Carolina. How to support the strike.
• Tweets by Samuel Sinyangwe (5-19-17) "I thought I understood racism and mass incarceration. But nothing prepared me for what I saw in Baton Rouge, Louisiana."
• Slavery Is Still Legal in the United States (Randal John Meyer, Newsweek, 8-25-15)
• What Philip Zimbardo and the Stanford Prison Experiment Tell Us About Abuse of Power (Victoria Bekiempis, Newsweek, 8-4-15)
As a colleague observed, "All these prison scandals started when the prisons were privatized (extremely lucrative--even more so with Trump wanting to keep asylum seekers locked up for indefinite lengths of time), a change massively pushed by Republicans. Glenn Greenwald wrote a lot about it at the time but no one really cared... even though it was costing us more and more money. And there's no incentive whatsoever to rehabilitate prisoners when you can employ them as slave labor."
"On anyone's list of evils, having private prison corporations lobby against liberalization of drug laws and in favor of harsher prison terms for drug users -- all to increase their profits by ensuring greater product (humans in cages) -- must be near the top." @ggreenwald
• Killing Pavel (YouTube, Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project and Slidstvo.Info, Anna Babinets, Elena Loginova, Vlad Lavrov, Dmytro Gnap, Matt Sarnecki, Ilya Magazanin, Sergiu Brega, Timmi Allen (Bellingcat)) Also a winner of the IRE Medal. The judges' comments: "Killing Pavel is a riveting story documenting the murder investigation conducted by OCCRP and Slidstvo.Info to uncover who may have been responsible for the death of a colleague. Journalists showed incredible tenacity and courage by canvassing the scene of the crime, tracking down key witnesses, and digitally analyzing surveillance footage to uncover clues that were previously overlooked by police. Nothing could be more in the spirit of IRE."
• From Russia With Blood (A Buzzfeed News Investigation, 6-15-17) Lavish London mansions. A hand-painted Rolls-Royce. And eight dead friends. For the British fixer Scot Young, working for Vladimir Putin's most vocal critic meant stunning perks – but also constant danger. His gruesome death is one of 14 that US spy agencies have linked to Russia – but the UK police shut down every last case. A bombshell cache of documents today reveals the full story of a ring of death on British soil that the government has ignored.
• Life inside Chernobyl, one of the most polluted places on earth (Emma Thomson, Adventure.com, 4-16-18) Almost exactly 32 years after an accidental nuclear explosion reduced Chernobyl to rubble, Emma Thomson discovers the reality of life—and radiation—in this remote Ukrainian region as it begins to come alive again.
• Voices from Chernobyl: The Oral History of a Nuclear Disaster by Svetlana Alexievich. Fascinating, horrifying book, for which author was winner of the Nobel Prize and National Book Critics Circle Award. It took several kinds of courage to write this book.
• Zinky Boys: Soviet Voices from the Afghanistan War also by Svetlana Alexievich. "Alexievich uses first-person accounts to illustrate the style of conflict the Soviet soldier faced, as well as to reveal the enormity of the betrayal of the ordinary Soviet citizen that may have contributed to the end of the U.S.S.R. A powerful, lyrical, and poignant portrait of a brutal chapter in modern history."--Library Journal
• 24-hour Putin people: my week watching Kremlin ‘propaganda channel’ RT (Tim Dowling, The Guardian, 11-29-17) “The annoying thing about RT is that some of the reporting is very good and genuine,” says Misha Glenny, the author of McMafia. “The trick is trying to differentiate that from the propaganda. The Russians have moved on since the days of Pravda, the Soviet Communist party newspaper, or Radio Moscow International during the cold war – at least then you knew it was all guff, coming out of the Ideological Secretariat. RT is designed to confuse and muddy the waters. That mixture of genuine and guff leaves you baffled and disoriented, which, I guess, is the point.”
• Russian spy poisoning: Scientist Vladimir Uglev 'helped create Novichok' (Stephen Rosenberg, BBC News, 4-19-18) Moscow continues to deny the existence of a chemical weapons programme called Novichok, but retired Russian scientist Vladimir Uglev says he created the Novichok nerve agent that was used in the attack on Sergei and Yulia Skripal in Salisbury on 4 March. Includes illustration of what the chemical does to the body.
GIRLS AND WOMEN IN SCIENCE
From the National Science Foundation's New Formulas for America's Workforce by Pat McNees
• From the National Science Foundation: New Formulas for America's Workforce
These contain invaluable resources for how to engage girls and young women in activities that encourage their interest in science and engineering. No reason you can't do them at home or in camp.
• New Formulas for America's Workforce: Girls in Science and Engineering by Pat McNees. The original compilation of NSF grant awards made from 1993 through mid-2002 by the GSE program. Download by chapter (PDF) or download whole book, free.
• New Formulas for America's Workforce 2--Girls in Science and Engineering (available formats: HTML and PDF) NSF’s investment in projects to improve the representation of girls and women in the sciences, mathematics, engineering and technology, from mid-2002 through 2005.
• New Tools for America's Workforce (HTML or PDF, posted 8-8-07) New Tools catalogs a wide variety of products from NSF-funded projects to help teachers, employers, policymakers, and parents foster gender diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
Science often operates under unacknowledged rules, norms, and expectations. And the intense power in faculty-student relations can last well beyond graduate school. Many graduate women are keenly aware of, and articulate about, the culture and institutional practices of science but are reluctant to speak up about them. Banu Subramaniam’s faculty-student research and action project at the University of Arizona was designed to break those silences.
One of their first discoveries was that graduate education is structured less around the classroom than around a protégé-master model. In this one-to-one model, interpersonal communication and relationships are central, and social markers of gender, class, ethnicity, and sexuality are ubiquitous—but talking about interpersonal communication, relationships, and social markers is forbidden.
They came to realize that graduate education is unique, with a “student” clearly subordinate to the faculty and in search of training from them, yet leaving school as a “colleague” to the very same faculty. Undergraduates learn about science and might even learn how to do experiments and interpret data, but graduate students learn how to “be” a “scientist.” For this, they must learn to present themselves as credible professionals —- network, design and carry out research projects, choose interesting and productive research topics, give talks, discuss science with colleagues, procure grants, publish results, recruit and motivate good students. So what began as a study of women’s experiences in graduate education became a look at scientists as knowledge-makers, who value not talking about and not recognizing the social world they create, maintain, and reproduce. How does this culture function? How does it reinscribe particular notions of gender, race, and class with the next generation of aspiring scientists?
Phase I, an institutional analysis, used questionnaires and interviews to determine how gender dynamics are “operationalized” in graduate education and what roles are played by male and female graduate students, post-docs, faculty, and department heads. Who determines the shaping of everyday science? The running of labs? The research questions asked? The methodologies employed? How do the power dynamics shape the participation of the different groups and in what ways?
Phase II featured a facilitated conversation between 20 faculty and 20 female graduate students about the strengths and limitations of graduate education for women, with an emphasis on gender issues. Four departments (math, chemistry, molecular and cellular biology, and ecology and evolutionary biology) were chosen because they had supportive chairs and represented different forms of research. It was important to the success of this part of the project — especially to student frankness — that students and faculty communicated through the facilitators and that participants’ identities remained anonymous to the other group. In a framework developed by Mary Wyer at Duke, two facilitators met separately with two faculty groups and two student groups in 20 two-hour sessions.
Student experiences varied somewhat (often shaped by lab groups and departments) but students were astonished at how similar some experiences were across departments. Persistent student issues were the lack of, and the need for, greater communication between faculty and students. There was departmental variation but on the whole students felt there were not enough occasions for faculty-student interactions. Overall, they did not believe faculty cared.
Faculty viewed their relationships with their students as particular and idiosyncratic. Anecdotes students offered as symptomatic of larger currents in graduate education were usually said by faculty to reflect problems of individuals. Students tended to view becoming a scientist or mathematician as a particular, constructed, and sometimes arbitrary process. They were interested in challenging and reinterpreting who could be a good scientist. Faculty tended to see the process as natural, involving the growth and maturation of something already inside the students in incipient form—a growth on which they had only limited influence. Their understanding of what happens often left little room for criticism in the sense that it emphasized a “stay if you fit in, leave if you don’t” perspective. To faculty, a student should be able to tell that s/he is “cut out to be a scientist” if graduate education seemed to come easy, be reasonable and rational. If not, the student was not meant to be a scientist.
Powerful insights came from an exercise in which each group was invited to name the unwritten rules governing graduate education. Students developed an extensive set of rules that demonstrated their commitment to being “good” and competent scientists—for example, Don’t complain, even about real problems; don’t have a personal life; pretend to be like your advisor; being a woman is a liability; you don’t have input, even on decisions that affect graduate school (even when asked); don’t exhibit “feminine” behaviors.
Students questioned the necessity and efficacy of many of these rules. Why must you work all the time? Why are research positions seen as a more “valuable” career track than teaching positions? Why are certain behaviors not allowed? Why is scientific culture silent on issues of gender? Why can you not have a personal life? Students consistently challenged the lists of rules and through that critiqued the scientific culture’s prototype of the ideal “scientist.” The students were willing to follow rules to do science; what they challenged was whether all of the rules defined by contemporary scientific culture produced good science — or, more important, whether not following those rules always produced bad science. They saw phase III as a place to envision a different scientific culture, one not hostile to their identities as women, one structured to create imaginative, empowered, and productive graduate student experiences.
In phase III, a subset of the faculty and students came together for an extremely successful open dialogue, aimed at re-envisioning graduate education, which highlighted the importance of communication as a way of clearing each group’s misperceptions of the other. Demonstrating that faculty and students could develop an open, honest, and constructive dialogue, this group developed constructive recommendations for change, posted at (http://w3.arizona.edu/~ws/science/nsf).
This project personally transformed many of the participants, but translating the recommendations into institutional change and transforming others within their departments proved difficult—because not all members of each department participated in the whole experience. A one-hour seminar or forum that brings faculty and students together does not recreate the process. To transform a department is extremely difficult because it requires breaking silences that have developed historically within the culture of science. Change requires concentrated work within a few departments, involving a significant number of faculty and graduate students, and in some cases all faculty.
• Academia is quietly and systematically keeping its women from succeeding (Marcie Bianco, Quartz, 4-30-16)
• Sexualized Images Undermine Women's Success In Academia (Zhana Vrangalova, Forbes, 10-30-17)
• True Confessions: Feminist Professors Tell Stories Out of School the book, edited by Susan Gubar. See Marina DelVecchio's review. Plus reviews of other feminist books.
• The More Gender Equality, the Fewer Women in STEM (Olga Khazan, Science, The Atlantic, 2-18, 18) A new study explores a strange paradox: In countries that empower women, they are less likely to choose math and science professions.
• Commission On Women In The Profession 22nd Report Card (2016-17)
• Cool science sites
• 6 Things Successful Women in STEM Have in Common (Laura Sherbin, Harvard Business Review, 4-27-18) They telegraph confidence, claim credit for their ideas, invest in peer networks, build up protégés, bring their authentic selves to work, speak up when they are overlooked, "speak on panels, sit on boards, and make their credentials or accomplishments known," and so on.
• Women in STEM: 'Change the World Like a Girl' (Alex Lardieri, US News & World Report, 4-6-18)
A lot of these articles came out at about the same time the NSF books on girls and sciene came out.
• Bias Literacy: A Review of Concepts in Research on Gender Discrimination and the U.S. Context by Ruta Sevo and Daryl E. Chubin, 2010.
• Where Popular Science Is Called Women's Work (Samuel G. Freedman, NY Times, 4-27-05)
• Why Janie Can't Engineer: Raising Girls to Succeed (Pat McNees, Wash Post, 1-6-04) Would your attitude toward physics have been different if your introduction to it had involved devising a catapult to send the head of a Barbie doll over a castle wall during a mock medieval siege?
• A Woman's Place in the Cosmos (Jennifer Frey, WashPost, 3-17-05) Some Scientists Want Harvard's Summers To See That for Girls, The Sky's the Limit
• Sex Ed: The Science of Difference (Steven Pinker, The New Republic, 2-14-05)
• The Revenge of Ellen Swallow (Editorial, New York Times)
• For Some Girls, the Problem With Math Is That They're Good at It (Cornelia Dean, NY Times, 2-1-05)
Here are links both to what Lawrence H. Summers actually said in his remarks in 2005 about diversity at Harvard and to some of the more interesting pieces written in response to his comments about why more girls and women don't go into science and engineering. His comments certainly mobilized discussion. As for what to do to change things, read the story "Why Janie Can't Engineer" and take a look at the National Science Foundation book on the subject.
• The Man in The Ivory Tower: Harvard's Lawrence Summers Is a Study in Controversy (Philip Kennicott, Wash Post, 4-15-05)